Contemporary Persian Literature


modern persian literature

An influential author who introduced many modern literary techniques to Persian literature, Houshang Golshiri began writing fiction in the s, although it wasn’t until the release of his first novel Prince Ehtejab () that his talent was truly recognized. An anti-establishment story of decadency, the novel was made into a successful Andrew Kingsford-Smith. Persian Literature. He serves as General Editor of the Encyclopaedia Iranica and of its Bibliotheca Persica, which includes the Persian Heritage Series, the Persian Studies Series, and the Modern Persian Literature Series. He is General Editor of the History of al-Tabari described herein. May 30,  · Persian Literature • In , Goethe published his West-östlicher Divan, a collection of lyric poems inspired by • The German essayist and philosopher Nietzsche was the author of the book Thus Spoke Zarathustra • A selection from Ferdowsi's .

Persian language - Wikipedia

Persian literature spans two and a half millennia, though much modern persian literature the pre-Islamic material modern persian literature been lost. Its sources have been within historical Persia including present-day Iran as well as regions of Central Asia where the Persian language has been the national language through history.

As one of the great literatures of mankind the Persian literature has its roots in surviving works in Old Persian or Middle Persian dating back as far as BCE, the date of the earliest surviving Achaemenid inscription, the Bisotun Inscription. The bulk of the surviving Persian literature, however, comes from the times following the Islamic conquest of Persia circa CE. After the Abbasids came to power CEthe Persians became the scribes and bureaucrats of modern persian literature Islamic empire and, increasingly, also its writers and poets.

Persians wrote both in Persian and Arabic; Persian predominated in later literary circles. Persian poets such as Sa'di, HafizRumi and Omar Khayyam are well known in the world and have influenced the literature of many countries. Pre-Islamic Persian literature. Very few literary works survived from ancient Persia. This is partly due to the destruction of the library at Persepolis.

Most of what remains consists of the royal inscriptions of Achaemenid kings, particularly Darius I — BC and his son Xerxes. Zoroastrian writings mainly were destroyed in the Islamic conquest of Persia.

The Parsis who fled to India, however, took with them some of the books of the Zoroastrian canon, including some of the Avesta and ancient commentaries Zend thereof. Some works of Sassanid geography and travel also survived albeit in Arabic translations. No single text devoted to literary criticism has survived from pre-Islamic Persia. Some researchers have quoted the Sho'ubiyye as asserting that the pre-Islamic Persians had books on eloquence, such as 'Karvand'.

No trace remains of such books, modern persian literature. There are some indications that some among the Persian elite were familiar with Greek rhetoric and literary criticism Zarrinkoub, Persian literature of the medieval and pre-modern periods. While initially overshadowed by Arabic during the Umayyad and early Abbasid caliphates, modern persian literature, New Persian soon became a literary language again of the Central Asian lands, modern persian literature.

The rebirth of the language in its new form is often accredited to Ferdowsi, Unsuri, Daqiqi, Rudaki, and their generation, as they used pre-Islamic nationalism as a conduit to revive the language and customs of ancient Persia. In particular, says Ferdowsi himself in his Shahnama: "For thirty years, I endured much pain and strife, with Persian I gave the Ajam verve and life".

So strong is the Persian aptitude for versifying everyday expressions that one can encounter poetry in almost every classical work, modern persian literature from Persian literature, science, or metaphysics, modern persian literature. In short, the ability to write in verse form was a pre-requisite for any scholar.

For example, almost half of Avicenna's medical writings are in verse. Works of the early era of Persian poetry are characterized by strong court patronage, an extravagance of panegyrics, and what is known as "exalted in style". The tradition of royal patronage began perhaps under the Sassanid era and carried over through the Abbasid and Samanid courts into every major Persian dynasty.

The Qasida was perhaps the most famous form of panegyric used, though quatrains such as those in Omar Khayyam's Ruba'iyyat are also widely popular, modern persian literature. Khorasani style, whose followers mostly were associated with Greater Khorasan, is characterized by its supercilious diction, dignified tone, and relatively literate language. Panegyric masters such as Rudaki were known for their love of nature, their verse abounding with evocative descriptions.

Through these courts and system of patronage emerged the epic style of poetry, with Ferdowsi's Shahnama at the apex. By glorifying the Iranian historical past in modern persian literature and elevated verses, he and other notables such as Daqiqi and Asadi Tusi presented the "Ajam" with a source of pride and inspiration that has helped preserve a sense of identity for the Iranian peoples over the ages.

Ferdowsi set a model to be followed by a host of other poets later on. The thirteenth century marks the ascendancy of lyric poetry with the consequent development of the ghazal into a major verse form, as well as the rise of mystical and Sufi poetry. This style is often called "Araqi style", western provinces of Iran were known as Araq-e-Ajam or Persian Iraq modern persian literature is known by its emotional lyric qualities, rich meters, and the relative simplicity of its language.

Emotional romantic poetry was not something new however, as works such as Vis o Ramin by Asad Gorgani, and Yusof o Zoleikha by Am'aq Bokharai exemplify. Poets such as Sana'i and Attar who ostensibly have inspired RumiKhaqani Shirvani, Anvari, and Nezami, were highly respected ghazal writers.

However, the elite of this school are Rumi, Sadi, and Hafez. Modern persian literature of Attar's works also belong to this genre as do the major works of Rumi, although some tend to classify these in the lyrical type due to their mystical and emotional qualities. In addition, some tend to group Naser Khosrow's works in this style as well; however the true gem of this genre is Sadi's Bustan, a heavyweight of Persian literature.

After the fifteenth century, modern persian literature, the Indian style of Persian poetry sometimes also called Isfahani or Safavi styles took over, modern persian literature. Also highly regarded is Siyasatnama, by Nizam al-Mulk, a famous Persian vizier. Kelileh va Demneh, translated from Indian folk tales, can also be mentioned in this category. It is seen as a collection of adages in Persian literary studies and thus does not convey folkloric notions, modern persian literature.

Among the major historical and biographical works in classical Persian, one can mention Abolfazl Beyhaghi's famous Tarikh-i Beyhaqi, Lubab ul-Albab of Zahiriddin Nasr Muhammad Aufi which has been regarded as a reliable chronological source by many expertsas well as Ata al-Mulk Juvayni's famous Tarikh-i Jahangushay-i Juvaini which spans the Mongolid and Ilkhanid era of Iran.

Attar's Tadkhirat al-Awliya "Biographies of the Saints" is also a detailed account of Sufi mystics, which is referenced by many subsequent authors and considered a significant work in mystical hagiography, modern persian literature. The oldest surviving work of Persian literary criticism after the Islamic conquest of Persia is Muqaddame-ye Shahname-ye Abu Mansuri, which was written in the Samanid period.

The work deals with the myths and legends of Shahname and is considered the oldest surviving example of Persian prose. It also shows an attempt by the authors to evaluate literary works modern persian literature. The stories are told over a period of one thousand and one nights, and every night she ends the story with a suspenseful situation, forcing the King to keep her alive for another day, modern persian literature.

The individual stories were created over several centuries, by many people from a number of different lands. During the reign of the Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid in the eighth century, Baghdad had become an important cosmopolitan city.

During this time, many of the stories that were originally folk stories are thought to have been collected orally over many years and later compiled into a single book. The compiler and ninth-century translator into Arabic is reputedly the storyteller Abu Abd-Allah Muhammad el-Gahshigar.

The frame story of Shahrzad seems to have been added in the fourteenth century. The influence of Persian literature on World literature. William Shakespeare referred to Iran as the "land of the Sophy". Some of Persia's best-beloved medieval poets were Sufis, and their poetry was, and is, widely read by Sufis from Morocco to Indonesia.

The themes and styles of this devotional poetry have been widely imitated by many Sufi poets. Many notable texts in Persian mystic literature are not poems, yet highly read and regarded. Afghanistan and the Transoxiana can claim to be the birthplace of Modern Persian. Most of the great patrons of Persian literature such as Sultan Sanjar and the courts of the Samanids and Ghaznavids were situated in this region, modern persian literature, as were writers such as Rudaki, Unsuri, and Ferdowsi.

As such, this rich literary heritage continues to survive well into the present in countries like Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Afghanistan. With the emergence of the Ghaznavids and their successors such as the Ghurids, Timurids and Mughal Empire, Persian culture and its literature gradually moved into the vast Indian subcontinent. Persian was the language of the nobility, literary circles, and modern persian literature royal Mughal courts for hundreds of years.

In modern times, Persian has been generally supplanted by Urdu, a heavily Persian-influenced dialect of Hindustani. Under the Moghul Empire of India during the sixteenth century, the official language of India became Persian. Only in did the British army force the Indian subcontinent to begin conducting business in English. Clawson, p. Dehkhoda and other scholars of the 20th century, for example, largely based their works on the detailed lexicography produced in India, using compilations such as Ghazi khan Badr Muhammad Dehlavi's Adat al-Fudhala Ibrahim Ghavamuddin Farughi's Farhang-i Ibrahimi, and particularly Muhammad Padshah's Farhang-i Anandraj.

Persian literature was little known in the West before the nineteenth century. It became much better known following the publication of several translations from the works of late medieval Persian poets, and it inspired works by various Western poets and writers, modern persian literature. Perhaps the most popular Persian poet of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was Omar Khayyam —whose Rubaiyat was freely translated by Edward Fitzgerald in Khayyam is esteemed more as a scientist than a poet in his native Persia, but in Fitzgerald's rendering, he became one of the most quoted poets in English.

Khayyam's line, "A loaf of modern persian literature, a jug of wine, and thou", is known to many who could not say who wrote it, or where. The Persian poet and mystic Rumi — known as Molana in Iran has attracted a large following in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. There are also a number of more literary translations by scholars such as A. The classical poets Hafiz, Sa'di, Khayyam, Rumi, Nezami and Ferdowsi are now widely known in English and can be read in various translations.

Other works of Persian literature are untranslated and little known. During the last century, numerous works of classical Persian literature have been translated into Swedish modern persian literature baron Eric Hermelin. Influenced by the writings of the Swedish mystic Emanuel Swedenborg, he was especially attracted to the religious or Sufi aspects of classical Persian modern persian literature. Contemporary Persian literature.

In the nineteenth century, Persian literature experienced dramatic change and entered a new era. The beginning of this change was exemplified by an incident in the mid-nineteenth century at the court of Nasereddin Shah, when the reform-minded prime minister, Amir Kabir, chastised the poet Habibollah Qa'ani for "lying" in a panegyric qasida written in Kabir's honor.

Kabir saw poetry in general and the type of poetry that had developed during the Qajar period as detrimental to "progress" and "modernization" in Iranian society, which he believed was in dire need of change.

Khan also addressed a need for a change in Persian poetry in literary terms as well, always linking it to social concerns. The new Persian literary movement cannot be understood without an understanding modern persian literature the intellectual movements among Iranian philosophical circles. Given the social and political climate of Persia Iran in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, which led to the Persian Constitutional Revolution of —, the idea that change in poetry was necessary became widespread.

Many argued that Persian poetry should reflect the realities of a country in transition. This idea was propagated by notable literary figures such as Ali-Akbar Dehkhoda and Abolqasem Aref, who challenged the traditional system of Persian poetry in terms of introducing new content and experimentation with rhetoric, lexico-semantics, and structure.

Dehkhoda, modern persian literature, for instance, used a lesser-known traditional form, the mosammat, to elegize the execution of a revolutionary journalist. Some researchers argue that the notion of "sociopolitical ramifications of esthetic changes" led to the idea of poets "as social leaders trying the limits and possibilities of social change. An important movement in modern Persian literature centered on the question of modernization and Westernization and whether these terms are synonymous when describing the evolution of Iranian society.

It can be argued that almost all advocates of modernism in Persian literature, from Akhundzadeh, Kermani, and Malkom Khan to Dehkhoda, 'Aref, Bahar, and Rafat, modern persian literature, were inspired by developments and changes that had occurred in Western, particularly European, literatures.

Such inspirations did not mean blindly copying Western models but, rather, adapting aspects of Western literature and changing them to fit the needs of Iranian culture. Following the pioneering works of Ahmad Kasravi, Sadeq Hedayat and many others, the Iranian wave of comparative literature and literary criticism reached a symbolic crest with the emergence of Abdolhossein Zarrinkoub, Shahrokh Meskoob, Houshang Golshiri and Ebrahim Golestan.

Literary criticism, modern persian literature. Saeed Nafisi analyzed and edited several critical works. He is well known for his works on Rudaki and Sufi literature.


Modern Persian Literature Series | Yarshater Center


modern persian literature


“Minor literature” is an independent and autonomous group that tries to interduce the works of contemporary Persian Literature. An influential author who introduced many modern literary techniques to Persian literature, Houshang Golshiri began writing fiction in the s, although it wasn’t until the release of his first novel Prince Ehtejab () that his talent was truly recognized. An anti-establishment story of decadency, the novel was made into a successful Andrew Kingsford-Smith. Persian literature. Persian literature, body of writings in New Persian (also called Modern Persian), the form of the Persian language written since the 9th century with a slightly extended form of the Arabic alphabet and with many Arabic loanwords. The literary form of New Persian is known as Farsī in Iran.