Literature Review - Preventing Childhood Obesity - NCBI Bookshelf

 

literature review on childhood obesity

Apr 21,  · Childhood Obesity: Literature Review. Introduction. Obesity has for a long time been a subject of concern, not only for adults but also for children. Due to the serious health implications that obesity has, a lot of efforts have been made to devise ways to prevent it. This includes several studies that are aimed at understanding the prevalence. Overweight and Obesity in Children: A Review of the Literature 5 Executive Summary Childhood overweight and obesity are increasingly significant problems, and ones that are likely to endure and to have long term adverse influences on the health of individuals and populations unless action is taken to reverse the trend. LITERATURE REVIEW. There was a time when chubby children were considered cute. It was assumed that their baby fat would melt away and a healthy adult would be left over. We now know that childhood obesity can be very harmful for our nation’s children. Between 16 to 33 percent of children are obese.


Controlling childhood obesity: A systematic review on strategies and challenges


Childhood obesity is a global health problem with short- and long-term health consequences. This systematic review presents a summary of the experiences on different family- school- and clinic-based interventions. We included those studies conducted among obese individuals aged up to 18 years.

Our search yielded relevant papers, 70 of them were conducted as high quality clinical trials. Our findings propose that school-based programs can have long-term effects in a large target group. This can be related to this fact that children spend a considerable part of their time in school, and adopt some parts of lifestyle there. They have remarkable consequences on health behaviors, but as there are some common limitations, their effects on anthropometric measures are not clear.

Due to the crucial role of parents in development of children's behaviors, family-based interventions are reported to have successful effects in some aspects; but selection bias and high dropout rate can confound their results.

Clinic-based interventions revealed favorable effects. They include dietary or other lifestyle changes like increasing physical activity or behavior therapy. It seems that a comprehensive intervention including diet and exercise are more practical. When they have different designs, results are controversial.

We suggest that among different types of interventional programs, a multidisciplinary approach in schools in which children's family are involved, can be the best and most sustainable approach for management of childhood obesity. The epidemic of childhood obesity is no more limited to high-income countries,[ 12literature review on childhood obesity, 345678 ] and has become as one of the most important global health problems of the 21 th century. Effective interventions for prevention literature review on childhood obesity control of childhood obesity should be considered for different aspects.

Based on Cochrane review of obesity prevention programs in children, most of the well-designed interventions had positive results especially in year-old children.

The purpose of this investigation was to systematically review the effects of various clinical- family- literature review on childhood obesity, and community-based interventions targeting the control of childhood obesity and make a suggestion for future interventions.

The searches yielded articles. Having removed duplicates, the relevant papers were selected in three phases. In the first and second phases, titles and abstracts of papers were screened and irrelevant papers were excluded. In the last phase, the full literature review on childhood obesity of recruited papers was explored deeply to select only relevant papers.

All these three screening phases were done by two independent reviewers RK and FA. Discrepancies were resolved by consultation and consensus. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: Studies on year-old children; community, family, school, and clinic interventions or a combination of them; English language; and conducted among obese or overweight children and adolescents.

Systematic reviews, meta-analysis, and editorials were excluded. Articles were firstly assessed on their abstracts and were removed. The required information that was extracted from all eligible papers was as follow:.

The selection process of our systematic review is presented in Figure 1. The interventions were categorized as school-based, family-based, and clinic-based programs as described below:.

A summary of the school-based obesity prevention and control programs is presented in Table 1. In brief, such interventions are suggested to be feasible and effective;[ 26 ] because students spend a considerable part of their time in school,[ 27 ] moreover teachers and peers can be engaged in such programs.

They are characterized by nutritional education and changes in dietary habits, as well as increase in PA through structured programs. Nevertheless, the impact of school-based programs on obesity prevention is controversial and remains to be determined by large studies with long-term follow-up research.

Some studies have not evaluated the effect of intervention on anthropometric measures,[ 273334 ] but they have shown positive impacts on eating and activity behaviors. The most common limitation of these studies is presenting self-reported data, non-randomized selection of schools, short duration of study, and not masking the interventional groups. Reaching a healthy weight is not successful unless children have support for making healthy behavior choices; obviously, providers of this support are families.

Family is an applicable target for health promoting interventions. Family-based intervention programs are considered as one of the literature review on childhood obesity successful methods for obesity treatment or prevention, literature review on childhood obesity. As it demonstrates, most of these programs were successful in decreasing body mass index BMI z-score and some health consequences of overweight. After participation of parents in these kinds of programs, their children consumed more fiber and were less sedentary.

In some cases, significant decrease in fat mass is documented, as well. Table 3 presents a summary of clinic-based weight management programs conducted in the pediatric age group.

Although most researchers have tried low calorie-low fat diets for treating obesity, experts have recommended to consider a diet with balanced macronutrients. High protein HP diets seems to make more satiety, but two studies did not confirm their advantage versus standard diets. In studies in which diet, exercise or both of them were taken into account, nutrition plus PA had more effect on anthropometric indices.

Obesity behavioral therapy has different parts such as motivational interviewing, goal setting, positive reinforcement, monitoring, and cognitive restructuring, literature review on childhood obesity. All interventions that consisted of nutrition, literature review on childhood obesity, exercise, and counseling had significant effects on body weight or other obesity-related factors[ 849396,,,, ] except for a study, which had beneficial effects only on obesity related behaviors.

This review evaluated three different approaches in childhood obesity management. As the design of most studies is a clinical trial, it makes their comparison easier. Schools are a safe place for learning healthy skills and continuing them during life. One of negative effects of this kind intervention is discrimination resulted from stigmatization.

This may persuade them to get involved in healthier lifestyle or might have opposite results. Although some of them had negligible effects. Clinic-based intervention had different methods but almost the same results. Some studies had no effects on anthropometric index. However, they had resulted in dietary habits or physical fitness improvement. On the other words, children may not pay attention to the instruction they were given.

Teachers can train students how to choose nutritious and low-calorie foods. In addition, exercise training can be reinforced in the school curriculum. If attendants get involved in obesity prevention programs, they can provide an environment for children to purchase healthy snacks and foods. Families can also make a circumstance which facilitates dietary and behavioral changes.

Furthermore, if parents recognize the importance of weight control, literature review on childhood obesity, they will be motivated to persuade their children for weight control. Families, especially mothers, literature review on childhood obesity, are the best paradigm for children to learn a healthful eating pattern and activity habits. Parents should involve kids in preparing food to make a positive literature review on childhood obesity on their attitudes toward obesity prevention.

It seems that the family has a key role in long-term weight control. Obesity causes mental problems in children literature review on childhood obesity adolescents,[ ] so behavior therapy seems to be vital. It sounds that group treatment is more successful than individual ones;[ 7579 ] specifically when parents are engaged. Counselors should persuade children and adolescents to eat breakfast, to have structured meal plan to increase consumption of fruits, vegetables, and family meals, as well as to decrease the intake of sweetened beverages, calorie-dense foods, and eating out, as well as reducing the sedentary behaviors and the screen time.

Unfortunately, most studies did not show favorable effects, many of them had small sample sizes or had short-term follow-up or lacked of the control group. Managing extra group support sessions or using technologies such as E-mail or SMS for monitoring weight losers can be a good idea. The findings suggest that among different types of interventional programs for management of childhood obesity, a multidisciplinary approach in schools in which children's family are involved, can be the most feasible and effective approach.

As teachers and parents are the best role models, literature review on childhood obesity, it will be easier to accustom children with healthy dietary, PA, and behavioral habits. Future studies are needed to determine the long-term effects and sustainability of different programs. FAS contributed in the conception of the work, conducting the review, revising the draft, approval of the final version of the manuscript, and agreed for all aspects of the work.

RK contributed in the conception and design of the work, drafting and revising the draft, approval of the final version of the literature review on childhood obesity, and agreed for all aspects of the work.

Source of Support: Nil. Conflict of Interest: None declared. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU, literature review on childhood obesity.

J Res Med Sci. Roya Kelishadi and Fatemeh Azizi-Soleiman 1. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address for correspondence: Dr. E-mail: moc. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background: Childhood obesity is a global health problem with short- and long-term health consequences. Results: Our findings propose that school-based literature review on childhood obesity can have long-term effects in a large target group. Conclusion: We suggest that among different types of interventional programs, a multidisciplinary approach in schools in which children's family are involved, can be the best and most sustainable approach for management of childhood obesity.

Keywords: Adolescent, child, control, obesity, prevention. Study selection and eligibility criteria Having removed duplicates, the relevant papers were selected in three phases. Data extraction and abstraction The required information that was extracted from all eligible papers was as follow: i General characteristics of the study first author's name, publication year, study year, study design, literature review on childhood obesity, sampling method, ii Characteristics of the study population age and sex of studied participants and sample size, literature review on childhood obesity, follow-upiii Type and duration of the intervention, measure s used to assess child weight, and iv Main finding.

Open in literature review on childhood obesity separate window. Figure 1. RESULTS The interventions were categorized as school-based, family-based, and clinic-based programs as described below: School-based programs A summary of the school-based obesity prevention and control programs is presented in Table 1. Table 1 School-based weight control studies. Family-based programs Reaching a healthy weight is not successful unless children have support for making healthy behavior choices; obviously, providers of this support are families.

Table 2 Family-based studies for controlling childhood obesity. Clinic-based programs Table 3 presents a summary of clinic-based weight management programs conducted in the pediatric age group. Cheng TO.

 

Literature Review Childhood Obesity

 

literature review on childhood obesity

 

LITERATURE REVIEW. There was a time when chubby children were considered cute. It was assumed that their baby fat would melt away and a healthy adult would be left over. We now know that childhood obesity can be very harmful for our nation’s children. Between 16 to 33 percent of children are obese. Background: Childhood obesity is a global health problem with short- and long-term health consequences. This systematic review presents a summary of the experiences on different family-, school-, and clinic-based lordibatta.cf by: worldwide. While obesity is a widely researched topic for people within the general population, the writer found there is be a limited amount conducted within the intellectual disability population. Aim: The purpose of the present literature review was to investigate obesity within the .