HIV and AIDS: Overview, causes, symptoms, and treatments


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Browse eMedTV's wide range of articles related to aids including topics such as symptoms of hiv, treatment for hiv, and hiv. Use the search box at the top-right corner of the page to find information about other health topics. Sep 07,  · HIV and AIDS information and facts. Read latest medical articles and view educational videos on AIDS and HIV symptoms and treatments. Stay informed about new developments on the AIDS. Please note, we are currently updating the Journal an established multidisciplinary journal, AIDS Research and Therapy advances the prevention.

AIDS Research and Therapy | Articles

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Note: Please don't include any URLs in your comments, as they will be removed upon submission. We do not store details you enter into this form. Please see our privacy policy for more articles on aids. Click here to return to the Medical News Today home page. However, modern advances in treatment mean that people living with HIV in countries with good access to healthcare very rarely develop AIDS once they are receiving treatment.

The life expectancy of a person who carries the HIV virus is now approaching that of a person that tests negative for the virus, as long as they adhere to a combination of medications called antiretroviral therapy ART on an ongoing basis. A Kaiser Permanente study in suggested that between andthe gap in life expectancy between people who are HIV positive and HIV negative closed from 44 years to 12 years. These are white blood cells that move around the body, articles on aids, detecting faults and anomalies in cells as well as infections.

When HIV targets and infiltrates these cells, it reduces the body's ability to combat other diseases. This increases the risk and impact of opportunistic infections and cancers. However, a person can carry HIV without experiencing symptoms for a long time. HIV is a lifelong infection. However, receiving treatment and managing the disease effectively can prevent HIV from reaching a severe level and reduce the risk of a person passing on the virus.

However, advances in ART mean than an ever-decreasing number of people progress to this stage. By the close ofaround 1, people were HIV-positive. To compare, figures from show that medical professionals diagnosed AIDS in an estimated 18, people. In the United States, the main causes of this transfer of fluids are:. A woman living with HIV who is pregnant or has recently given birth might transfer the disease to her child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding.

The risk of HIV transmitting through blood transfusions is extremely low in countries that have effective screening procedures in place for blood donations. To transmit HIV, these fluids must contain enough of the virus. People may be able to achieve undetectable levels of HIV by closely following the prescribed course of treatment.

Confirming and regularly monitoring undetectable status using a blood test is important, articles on aids, as this does not mean that the person no longer has HIV. Undetectable HIV relies on the person adhering to their treatment, as well as the effectiveness of the treatment itself. For the most part, infections by other bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites cause the more severe symptoms of HIV.

These conditions tend to progress further in people who live with HIV than in individuals with healthy immune systems, articles on aids. A correctly functioning immune system would protect the body against the more advanced effects of infections, and HIV disrupts this process. Some people with HIV do not show symptoms until months or even years after contracting the virus. However, around 80 percent of people may develop articles on aids set of flu-like symptoms known as acute retroviral syndrome around 2—6 weeks after the virus enters the body.

However, people who experience several of these symptoms and know of any reason they might have been at risk of contracting HIV over the last articles on aids weeks should take a test.

In many cases, after the symptoms of acute retroviral syndrome, symptoms might not occur for many years.

During this time, the virus continues to develop and cause immune system and organ damage. Without medication that prevents the replication of the virus, this slow process can continue for an average of around 10 years. Complying rigidly to a course of ART can disrupt this phase and suppress the virus completely. Taking effective antiretroviral medications for life can halt on-going damage to the immune system. Without medication, HIV weakens the ability to fight infection.

The person becomes vulnerable to serious illnesses. During late-stage HIV infection, articles on aids, the risk of developing a life-threatening illness increases greatly. A person with late-stage HIV can control, prevent and treat serious conditions by taking other medications alongside HIV treatment. In reducing the activity of the immune system, articles on aids, late-stage HIV reduces the ability of the body to combat a range of infections, diseases, articles on aids, and cancers.

Infections that caused minimal or no health problems before the development of AIDS might pose a serious health risk once the condition has weakened the immune system. Medical professionals refer to these as articles on aids infections OIs. Once any of these infections occur, a doctor will diagnose AIDS.

Candidiasis of the bronchi, trachea, esophagus, and lungs: As a fungal infection that normally articles on aids in the skin and nails, this frequently causes serious problems in the esophagus and lower respiratory tract for people with AIDS. Invasive cervical cancer: This type of cancer begins in the cervix and spreads to other areas in the body.

Regular checks with a cancer care team can help prevent the cancer or limit the spread, articles on aids. Coccidioidomycosis: People sometimes refer to the self-limited version of this disease in healthy individuals as valley fever. Inhalation articles on aids the fungus Coccidioides immitis causes this infection. Cryptococcosis: Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungus that can infect any part of the body, but most often enters the lungs to trigger pneumonia or the brain to cause swelling.

Cryptosporidiosis: The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium causes this infection that leads to severe abdominal cramps and watery diarrhea. Cytomegalovirus disease CMV : CMV can cause a range of diseases articles on aids the body, including pneumonia, gastroenteritisarticles on aids, and encephalitisa brain infection.

However, CMV retinitis is of particular concern in people with late-stage HIV, articles on aids, and it can infect the retina at the back of the eye, permanently removing sight. CMV retinitis is a medical emergency. While doctors do not fully understand the cause, they consider it to be linked to post-infection inflammation in the brain.

Herpes simplex HSV : This virus, usually sexually transmitted or passed on in childbirth, is extremely common and rarely causes health issues or causes self-limiting recurrences in people with healthy immune systems. However, it can reactivate in people with HIV, causing painful cold sores around the mouth and ulcers on the genitals and anus that do not resolve. The sores, rather than a herpes diagnosis, are an indicator of AIDS.

Histoplasmosis: The fungus Histoplasma capsulatum causes extremely severe, pneumonia-like symptoms in people with advanced HIV. This condition can become progressive disseminated histoplasmosis and can impact on organs outside of the respiratory system. Chronic intestinal isosporiasis: The parasite Isospora belli can infect the body through contaminated food and water, causing diarrhea, fever, vomiting, weight loss, articles on aids, headachesand abdominal pain.

Kaposi's sarcoma KS : Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus KSHValso known as human herpesvirus 8 HHV-8causes a cancer that leads to the growth of abnormal blood vessels anywhere in the body. If KS reaches organs, such as the intestines or lymph nodes, it can be extremely dangerous.

KS appears as solid purple or pink spots on the surface of the skin. They might be flat or raised. Lymphoma: People refer to cancer of the lymph nodes and lymphoid tissues as lymphomaand many different types might occur.

Tuberculosis TB : Articles on aids bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes this disease and can transfer in droplets if a person with an active form of the bacteria sneezes, coughs, or speaks. TB causes a severe lung infection as well as weight loss, fever, and tiredness, and can also infect the brain, lymph nodes, bones, or kidneys.

Mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium kansasii : These bacteria occur naturally in the environment and pose few problems for people with fully-functioning immune systems. However, they can spread throughout the body and cause life-threatening health issues for people with HIV, articles on aids, especially in its later stages.

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia PJP articles on aids A fungus called Pneumocystis jirovecii causes breathlessness, dry cough, and high fever in people with suppressed immune systems, including those with HIV. Recurrent pneumonia: Many different infections can cause pneumonia, but a bacteria called Streptococcus articles on aids is one of its most dangerous causes in people with HIV. Vaccines are available for this articles on aids, and every person who has HIV should receive vaccination for Streptococcus pneumoniae.

However, in people with compromised immune systems, either due to HIV or medications, articles on aids, such as those for multiple sclerosis MSarticles on aids, the JC virus attacks the brain, leading to a dangerous conditon called progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy PML.

PML can be life-threatening, causing paralysis and cognitive difficulties. Recurrent Salmonella septicemia: This type of bacteria often enters the body in contaminated food and water, circulates the entire body, and overpowers the immune system, causing nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting. Toxoplasmosis toxo : Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that inhabits warm-blooded animals, including cats and rodents, and leaves the body in their feces.

Humans contract the diseases by inhaling contaminated dust or eating contaminated food, but it can also occur in commercial meats. Take care to wear protective gloves while changing cat litter and thoroughly wash the hands afterward.

Wasting syndrome: This occurs when a person involuntarily loses 10 percent of their muscle mass through diarrhea, weakness, or fever. Part of the weight loss may also consist of fat loss.

Aside from managing HIV viral load with medications, a person who lives with the disease must take precautions, including the following steps:. Antibioticantifungal, or antiparasitic drugs can help treat an OI. Many misconceptions circulate about HIV that are harmful and stigmatizing for people with the virus.

Becoming aware of HIV status is vital for commencing treatment and preventing the articles on aids of more severe immune difficulties and subsequent infections. A doctor can test for HIV using a specific blood test. A positive result means that they have detected HIV antibody articles on aids the bloodstream. The blood is re-tested before a positive result is given. After potential exposure to the virus, early testing and diagnosis is crucial and greatly improves the chances of successful treatment.

Home testing kits are also available. HIV might take 3 - 6 months to show up in testing, and re-testing may be necessary for a definitive diagnosis.


HIV and AIDS News -- ScienceDaily


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Browse eMedTV's wide range of articles related to aids including topics such as symptoms of hiv, treatment for hiv, and hiv. Use the search box at the top-right corner of the page to find information about other health topics. Journal articles on HIV The power of partners: Experiences from implementing and scaling-up HIV partner notification and index testing services Journal of the International AIDS Society supplement 19 July ; To thine own test be true: HIV self‐testing and the global reach for the undiagnosed. Selected Journal Articles on HIV/AIDS To search this page, type "Ctrl+F" on a PC or "Command+F" on a Mac and enter a keyword or phrase Starred items indicate research conducted by VA scientists, funded by the VA, or involving VA patients.